Tuesday is the 210th anniversary of the birth of Charles Darwin, which is now celebrated as Darwin Day. Darwin is best known for him The theory of evolution through natural selection. When Darwin's work was made public for the first time in 1859, it shocked Britain's religious establishment. And while today it is accepted by almost all scientists, evolutionary theory is still rejected by many Americans, often because it Fights with their religious beliefs About Divine Creation
Darwin Day has been adopted to promote everything from scientific literacy to secularism by scientific and humanitarian groups, not an official holiday. this year, Dozens of events The plan has been made around the world, many of them have been anchored by scientific talks or seminars.
To mark this occasion, here are six facts about public opinion on development, as well as other aspects of the debate in America and elsewhere:
1Roughly eight-ten American adults (81%) say that human has evolved over timeAccording to a new data Pew Research Center Study. It includes one-third of all Americans (33%), who say that humans have developed with the participation of God or with higher power due to processes like natural selection, as well as 48% of human development directed by God or Believe it happened through permitted processes. A high power. The same survey found that 18% of Americans reject the development completely and say that humans are always present in their current form. (See) full report Keeping track of the words and question methods of question can affect the outcome of the survey on development.)
2Approximately four-ten white evangelical Protestants (38%) say that humans are always present in their present form, and a quarter (27%) of the black Protestants share this scene, According to the new study. Between the white mainline Protestant, only 16% say that humans are always present in their current form. This is the same as shares of Catholics (13%) and religiously unrelated (11%). Only among religiously unconnected – those who describe their religion as atheists, agnostic or "especially nothing" – majority (64%) through natural selection with no involvement with God or higher power Accept the development from. Both Protestant and Catholic are very likely to say that development was given or allowed by God, because they say that humans have developed due to processes like natural selection, or say that human beings are always in their present form Has existed.
3Scientists agree that the human has evolved over time, and most Americans know that this is the case. 98% of scientists associated with the American Association for the Advancement of Science say that they believe that humans have evolved over time. Roughly three-quarters (76%) of Americans believe that most biologists keep this approach, According to new study. Those who reject the development in the general public, they are divided on whether there is a scientific consensus on the subject: 46% say that most biologists think that human has evolved due to processes like natural selection, And 52% say that most biological scientists believe that humans have always been present in their present form.
4A series of court rulings prohibited the teaching of creativity or intelligent design in public schools. In spite of efforts Many american states And to ban the teaching of development in public schools – or to teach the evolutionary alternatives in recent decades Continuous public school course rejected Veer away from evolutionary theory In Edwards v. Aguilard (1987), for example, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that in the law of Louisiana, public school students needed to learn both development and construction science, which violated the prohibition of constitution on the establishment of religion.
5Although most Americans (59%) say science and religion are often in conflict, people who are more attentively religious, they are less than others to see this conflict between faith and science., According to 2015 Pew Research Center Survey. Those who go to church at least once a week, half of them (50%) see religion and science in conflict, compared to about three-fourths (73%) people who rarely worship services Are included in. At the same time, most people (68%) say that their own personal religious beliefs are not linked to the accepted scientific theory.
6Outside the US, there are many other countries where large portions of the population reject development. In Latin AmericaFor example, about four-ten or residents of many countries – including Ecuador, Nicaragua and Dominican Republic – say that humans and other living things are always present in their present form. It is true, even if the official education of Catholic religion, which is the majority religion of this region, Do not reject development. In Central and Eastern Europe, Development is largely accepted, But more than half of the adults – Armenia and Bosnia – reject it. During this, Muslims in many nations This topic is divided on, although the prominence of Muslims in countries such as Afghanistan, Indonesia and Iraq reject developmentism.
It is important to note that our international surveys have used A different perspective To ask about development, the results are not comparable to our new American survey directly (though some of our old American surveys use similar questions).
Note: This is basically an update of a post published on February 12, 2015.
category: 5 facts